The town of Abu Simbel, 280 kilometers south of Aswan and about 60 km from the Egyptian-Sudanese border in the south, called the area between Aswan northward, Dongola Sudan southward name (Nubia) and this name is derived from the word (Neb) Pharaonic means (gold) relative to the gold mines, which was famous for Nubia.
The city is located at a height of 180 m above sea level on the west bank of Lake Nasser, the lake that formed after the High Dam, which is an area of 500 square kilometers, of which 350 square kilometers in the Egyptian Nubia.
He was the ancient Egyptians (Pharaohs) on the city of Abu Simbel name (Absht) as it is written on the walls and Mabdiha of which came the word (Abu Simbel), as called by the people of Nubia and is now known as Abu Simbel.
The city of Abu Simbel modern city was created during the rescue synagogues in 1963 and enjoys an international reputation for its beauty and mild and beautiful sunshine throughout the year and is Mashta global warmth in the winter.
And there was a region of Nubia 45 Nubian villages, the state Ptahjerha when building the High Dam villages new north of Aswan near the (Kom Ombo) and that the Abu Simbel tourist attraction is important for each tourist delegations, the State has accorded increased attention, which is now seeing significant progress and prosperity in all fields whether a tourist or urban or agricultural.
There are temples in Aswan has been carved in the mountain on the west bank of the Nile in the period between 1290 BC, 1224 BC. M.
It is the front yard of the temple the great stretches degrees short corridor leads the visitor to the wide open, which runs in front of the front of the temple carved out of rock, which reaches a height of 30 meters and width 35 m.
And guarding the entrances to the temple of the four giant statues of the famous King Ramses II and some as high statue of the statues to more than 20 meters, and with every statue statues smaller, although it is the other small, relatively still larger than normal size, the statues of the mother of King - Queen ( TOYA) and his wife Queen (Nefertari) and some of their children.
Above the entrance to the Great Hall of the columns, between the two statues in the middle of the interface, no fee in the form of the sun god (Ra - Harakhci) and has a hawk head.
Lies the Great Hall of the columns after the front yard of the temple and its roof on a portable eight columns in front of each ten meters high statue of the king (Ramses).
The ceiling is adorned Binsor (eagles) represents Osiris, and inscriptions on the walls represent the Pharaoh (Ramses) in various battles victorious as usual.
The following room is a vestibule has four columns, a visitor sees Ramses and Nefertari to the gods and the solar boat carrying the dead to the underworld as in their beliefs.
The inner chamber last one is the Holy of Holies, where sitting (statues) of the four gods of the great temple on Arroucha carved into the back wall waiting for the dawn.
The temple is built carefully so that in 22 of the month of February and October 22 of each year, the sun penetrates through the temple hall of columns, and the corridor until you reach the inner sanctuary to illuminate the statues of Ra, and Amun, Ramesses II.
The small temple and built in honor of Queen Nefertari (temple of Hathor) is a temple (Hathor) carved in the rock, and stands in front of six statues enormous reach a height of about ten meters, of which four statues of the king (Ramses) and standing, and there are statues of his queen (Nefertari) and is also standing.
It takes statues of the king and his wife, the youngest forms of princes and princesses and the six columns of the hall of columns have headers in the form of the goddess (Hathor).
In the vestibule (lobby) and the neighboring rooms are colorful scenes of the goddess and her vehicle the campus there are the holy statue of highlights from the wall are striking for a cow, a sacred symbol of Hathor.
The effects of the Temple of Abu Simbel threatened to swallow up forever under the rising waters of Lake Nasser is the rescue of these effects are of the greatest achievements of the UNESCO, and cost about 40 million U.S. dollars, and it took more work than four years have been after the opening of the temples in their position the new year 1968.
States that have been cut temples to more than 2000 large piece, each weighing from 10 to 40 tons, and re-construction inside a mountain has been prepared specifically to mimic the original location, but at a distance of 210 m of water, at a height of more than by 65 m high original site